Several meta-analyses and reviews focusing on either overall training effectiveness or on the effectiveness of management and leadership specifically were identified non-systematically. Identified research provides support for the claim that management and leadership expertise can be taught through training programmes. Additionally, Avolio et al. (2010) have estimated that leadership training programmes will usually have high returns on investment for companies, but it remains uncertain whether such programmes will be cost-effective in an animal advocacy context. Lacerenza et al. (2017) identify a number of moderators that seemed to improve the effectiveness of leadership training; their findings mostly align with AAC’s previous findings, but suggest that face-to-face delivery improves effectiveness. Avolio et al.’s (2009) findings provide reason to doubt that leadership training programmes focused on “transformational leadership” will be more effective than other possible training types.
Animal Advocacy Careers (AAC) is considering creating, running, or funding a number of training programmes, including programmes focused on improving management and leadership skills. AAC has already conducted brief research on “The Characteristics of Effective Training Programmes” and “The Characteristics of Good Management and Leadership.” However, some research that is of high relevance to AAC’s plans was not identified during those projects, or was identified but was not relevant to the focus of those projects. That research is considered here.
This research was conducted less systematically than our previous research projects. The research items considered here were mostly identified during previous research projects, by chance, or were recommended to us by advisers, though a few supplementary Google Scholar searches were conducted. For some of the most important research items, their citations were checked to see if more recent meta-analyses or reviews covering similar topics had been conducted.
Findings and discussion
The full results are available in the “Summary of findings” spreadsheet. This research provides support for the claim that management and leadership expertise can be taught through training programmes:
These findings should be considered alongside AAC’s previous research, which noted that high performance on scales measuring “transformational leadership” and “contingent reward” behaviours is correlated with positive behavioural and organisational results outcomes.
However, a few key uncertainties remain:
The research included here has several other implications for the effectiveness of management and leadership training:
The full list of references is available in the third tab of the “Summary of findings” spreadsheet.